Dragon
国外主机测评国外主机测评  2019-08-23 10:22 国外主机测评 隐藏边栏  0 
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在开始之前,你应该先了解一下什么是 Mastodon,它是做什么的?有什么功能?下面这篇文章写的很详细了,有兴趣的可以先看看:

https://www.douban.com/group/topic/113168501/

这里我们简而言之,你现在可以把 Mastodon 当作是一个“去中心化”的新浪微博或是 Twitter。

现在我们来做部署前的准备工作,你应该准备好下面两样东西:

1.一台内存大于 1GB 的 KVM 架构 VPS。
2.一个顶级域名,并且已经解析到你的 VPSIP。

首先我们使用 Xshell 登录到 VPS 内,更新系统:

 

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yum -y update

安装 EPEL 源:

 

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yum -y install epel-release

安装开发工具包:

 

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yum -y groupinstall "Development Tools"

安装项目所需依赖:

 

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yum -y install wget curl git openssl-devel readline-devel libicu-devel libidn-devel postgresql-devel protobuf-devel libxml2-devel libxslt-devel ncurses-devel sqlite-devel gdbm-devel zlib-devel libffi-devel libyaml-devel

安装 NodeJS:

 

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curl --silent --location https://rpm.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo bash -
yum -y install nodejs

安装 Yarn 包管理器:

 

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curl --silent --location https://dl.yarnpkg.com/rpm/yarn.repo | sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/yarn.repo
yum -y install yarn

安装 imagemagick:

 

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yum -y install https://imagemagick.org/download/linux/CentOS/x86_64/ImageMagick-libs-7.0.8-12.x86_64.rpm
yum -y install https://imagemagick.org/download/linux/CentOS/x86_64/ImageMagick-7.0.8-12.x86_64.rpm

安装 Redis:

 

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yum -y install redis

启动 Redis 并设置开机启动:

 

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systemctl start redis
systemctl enable redis

安装 PostgreSQL 数据库:

 

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yum -y install https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/10/redhat/rhel-7-x86_64/pgdg-centos10-10-2.noarch.rpm
yum -y install postgresql10 postgresql10-server postgresql10-contrib postgresql10-devel

初始化数据:

 

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/usr/pgsql-10/bin/postgresql-10-setup initdb

启动 PostgreSQL 以及设置开机启动:

 

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systemctl enable postgresql-10
systemctl start postgresql-10

现在登录到数据库内:

 

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sudo -u postgres psql

创建数据库:

 

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CREATE USER mastodon CREATEDB;

完成之后退出:

 

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q

安装 FFMPEG(可选):

 

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cd
wget https://johnvansickle.com/ffmpeg/releases/ffmpeg-release-64bit-static.tar.xz
tar -xJf ffmpeg-release-64bit-static.tar.xz
cd ffmpeg-4.0.2-64bit-static
cp ffmpeg /usr/bin/ffmpeg
cp ffprobe /usr/bin/ffprobe

安装 Nginx,先新建一个源:

 

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vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo

写入:

 

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[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

然后 yum 安装即可:

 

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yum -y install nginx

这里先停止运行 nginx:

 

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systemctl stop nginx

设置 nginx 开机启动:

 

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systemctl enable nginx

现在我们添加一个用户,命名为 mastodon:

 

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adduser mastodon

切换到这个用户的 shell 内:

 

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su mastodon

如果需要修改这个用户的密码,你应该执行下面的命令:

 

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passwd mastodon

安装 rbenv:

 

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wget -q https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv-installer/raw/master/bin/rbenv-installer -O- | bash

上面的脚本执行完成之后,设置环境变量:

 

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echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bash_profile
echo 'eval "$(rbenv init -)"' >> ~/.bash_profile
source ~/.bash_profile

接着执行如下命令检查是否正常:

 

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wget -q https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv-installer/raw/master/bin/rbenv-doctor -O- | bash

如果一切正常,那么我们现在就可以使用 rbenv 安装 ruby 了:

 

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rbenv install 2.5.1

安装完成之后,设置全局使用 ruby2.5.1:

 

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rbenv global 2.5.1

现在拉取 Mastodon 项目文件并进入到项目目录:

 

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cd ~
git clone https://github.com/tootsuite/mastodon.git live
cd ~/live

检测最新版本:

 

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git checkout $(git tag -l | grep -v 'rc[0-9]*$' | sort -V | tail -n 1)

安装 bundler 和 ruby 依赖:

 

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gem install bundler
bundle install -j$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN) --deployment --without development test

安装 node.js 依赖:

 

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yarn install --pure-lockfile

全部完成之后,现在我们可以开始配置 mastodon 了:

RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake mastodon:setup
在这个向导中,你应该按照如下配置来填写:

  • Q:Domain name:
    A:填写你的域名地址,不要带 www
  • Q:Do you want to enable single user mode?
    A:N
  • Q:Are you using Docker to run Mastodon?
    A:n
  • Q:PostgreSQL host: /var/run/postgresql
    A:回车
  • Q:PostgreSQL port: 5432
    A:回车
  • Q:Name of PostgreSQL database: mastodon_production
    A:回车
  • Q:Name of PostgreSQL user: mastodon
    A:回车
  • Q:Password of PostgreSQL user:
    A:回车
  • Q:Redis host: localhost
    A:回车
  • Q:Redis port: 6379
    A:回车
  • Q:Redis password:
    A:回车
  • Q:Do you want to send e-mails from localhost?
    A:y
  • Q:Send a test e-mail with this configuration right now?
    A:n
  • Q:Save configuration?
    A:y
  • Q:Prepare the database now?
    A:y
  • Q:Compile the assets now?
    A:y
  • Q:Do you want to create an admin user straight away?
    A:y

走完这个向导之后,你应该切换回 root 用户:

 

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su root

现在我们需要创建三个服务文件,第一个是 web 服务:

 

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vi /etc/systemd/system/mastodon-web.service

写入:

 

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[Unit]
Description=mastodon-web
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=simple
User=mastodon
WorkingDirectory=/home/mastodon/live
Environment="RAILS_ENV=production"
Environment="PORT=3000"
ExecStart=/home/mastodon/.rbenv/shims/bundle exec puma -C config/puma.rb
ExecReload=/bin/kill -SIGUSR1 $MAINPID
TimeoutSec=15
Restart=always
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

第二个是后台服务:

 

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vi /etc/systemd/system/mastodon-sidekiq.service

写入:

 

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[Unit]
Description=mastodon-sidekiq
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=simple
User=mastodon
WorkingDirectory=/home/mastodon/live
Environment="RAILS_ENV=production"
Environment="DB_POOL=5"
ExecStart=/home/mastodon/.rbenv/shims/bundle exec sidekiq -c 5 -q default -q push -q mailers -q pull
TimeoutSec=15
Restart=always
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

第三个是流媒体 API 服务:

 

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vi /etc/systemd/system/mastodon-streaming.service

写入:

 

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[Unit]
Description=mastodon-streaming
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=simple
User=mastodon
WorkingDirectory=/home/mastodon/live
Environment="NODE_ENV=production"
Environment="PORT=4000"
ExecStart=/usr/bin/npm run start
TimeoutSec=15
Restart=always
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

完成之后立即启动这三个服务:

 

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systemctl start mastodon-web.service
systemctl start mastodon-sidekiq.service
systemctl start mastodon-streaming.service

接着设置开机启动:

 

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systemctl enable mastodon-web.service
systemctl enable mastodon-sidekiq.service
systemctl enable mastodon-streaming.service

现在你应该关闭系统防火墙:

 

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systemctl stop firewalld.service
systemctl disable firewalld.service

接着关闭 SELinux:

 

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vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=disabled
setenforce 0

安装 certbot 用于自动签发 Let’s Encrypt 证书:

 

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yum -y install certbot

执行如下命令,给你的域名签发证书(example.com 替换成你的域名):

 

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certbot certonly --standalone -d example.com

证书如果签发成功,那么证书的存储路径应该是:

 

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/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem

现在你应该配置 certbot 自动续约证书:

 

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crontab -e

写入:

 

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0 0 * * * /usr/bin/certbot renew --quiet

这样配置好了后,certbot 会在每天的 0 点检查证书是否过期,如果过期就自动续约证书。

现在我们编辑 Nginx 的主配置文件:

 

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vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

在这个配置文件的第一行,将 nginx 的运行用户修改成 mastodon:

 

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user  mastodon;

接着我们新建一个 Nginx 站点配置文件:

vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/example.com.conf

写入:

 

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map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
  default upgrade;
  ''      close;
}
server {
  listen 80;
  listen [::]:80;
  server_name example.com;
  root /home/mastodon/live/public;
  return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
  listen 443 ssl http2;
  listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
  server_name example.com;
  ssl_protocols TLSv1.2;
  ssl_ciphers HIGH:!MEDIUM:!LOW:!aNULL:!NULL:!SHA;
  ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
  ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
  ssl_certificate     /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
  ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
  keepalive_timeout    70;
  sendfile             on;
  client_max_body_size 80m;
  root /home/mastodon/live/public;
  gzip on;
  gzip_disable "msie6";
  gzip_vary on;
  gzip_proxied any;
  gzip_comp_level 6;
  gzip_buffers 16 8k;
  gzip_http_version 1.1;
  gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;
  add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000";
  location / {
    try_files $uri @proxy;
  }
  location ~ ^/(emoji|packs|system/accounts/avatars|system/media_attachments/files) {
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=31536000, immutable";
    try_files $uri @proxy;
  }
  location /sw.js {
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=0";
    try_files $uri @proxy;
  }
  location @proxy {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
    proxy_set_header Proxy "";
    proxy_pass_header Server;
    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000;
    proxy_buffering off;
    proxy_redirect off;
    proxy_http_version 1.1;
    proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
    proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
    tcp_nodelay on;
  }
  location /api/v1/streaming {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
    proxy_set_header Proxy "";
    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:4000;
    proxy_buffering off;
    proxy_redirect off;
    proxy_http_version 1.1;
    proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
    proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
    tcp_nodelay on;
  }
  error_page 500 501 502 503 504 /500.html;
}

 

 

 

 

 

 

最后启动 Nginx:

 

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systemctl start nginx

大功告成,不出意外的话,现在打开你的站点域名,你应该可以看到一个 Mastodon 实例了,随便试用了下,很不错:

#建站教程#centos 系统搭建 Mastodon
申明:原文来至荒岛(https://lala.im/4286.html)

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